This book is a doctoral dissertation of Hou Renzhi when he studied in Liverpool University, England in 1949. The author creatively applied modern history and geography to the detailed research and incisive explanation of the rise and development of Beijing. This is also the first monograph about the history and geography of a city, a landmark of both Hou's personal academic achievements and the development of Chinese history and geography. It also plays an important role in today's urban protection and project. It is the first monograph to explore the origin and development of a city with the method of historical geography in China, and a meticulous study of Beijing's geography based on historical documents and field work, with 54 full-color original maps drawn by the author.